|Sofer et al., 2011 - Experimental and Control Diets followed for 6 months|
Fasting Glucose: The experimental diet also resulted in significantly lower fasting glucose levels at day 180 when compared to day 0 (20% decrease). The control diet decreased fasting glucose levels, but the change was not statistically significant (8.3% decrease).
Cholesterol: Both diets resulted in similar decreases in LDL-cholesterol concentration at day 180 (experimental = 9.7%; control = 7.6%). However, the experimental diet resulted in a significantly greater increase in HDL-cholesterol concentration at day 180 (experimental = 40.8%; control = 26%).
Leptin: Leptin concentrations decreased significantly in both groups by day 90 and 180. However, there was no significant difference in this decrease between control and experimental diets.
Adiponectin (regulates lipid and glucose metabolism; more is better): The experimental diet resulted in a significant increase in avg. 12-h adiponectin concentrations at day 180 as compared to day 0 (43.5%). The control diet increase was insignificant (13.9%).
This article suggests that eating most of your carbs at night is more beneficial for decreasing hunger and improving certain biochemical factors. However, it is still unclear whether the experimental diet results in greater reductions of physical factors such as BMI, abdominal circumference, and body fat percentage (due to the lack of statistically significant differences in data). The experimental diet only resulted in significantly more weight loss, which may include both muscle and fat. Also, there was no difference in changes in leptin concentrations between the experimental and control diets, which disproves the authors’ leptin hypothesis. This issue may have been cleared up if the authors had a better diet protocol.
Subjects maintained “a standard low-calorie diet (20% protein, 30–35% fat, 45–50% carbohydrates, 1,300–1,500 kcal)”. However, one of the most common recommendations for maintaining muscle and losing fat is to increase protein intake. Many personal trainers and nutritionists recommend a low-calorie diet consisting of 30% protein, 40% carbs, 30% fat. Furthermore, people that follow a Paleo, low-carb, or ketogenic diet may eat even more protein and less carbs. Therefore, a diet with 45-50% of calories from carbohydrates may be an issue, no matter what time of the day you eat them. If I were to conduct a follow up study, I would lower this carb intake. Nonetheless, this article does raise some interesting questions about the status quo.